Nesta quarta-feira, 11/12/2019, compareci, pela manhã, ao Instituto Rio
Branco, para assistir a uma conferência ministrada pelo professor Evandro
Pontes, que traduziu para o português o livro The Virtue of
Nationalism, de Yoram Hazony, vencedor do prêmio Conservative Book of
the Year, de 2019. O professor Pontes abordou o pensamento de Hazony e sua
aplicação à realidade brasileira. Ao final, solicitado a responder quais
virtudes ele via no nacionalismo, título do livro traduzido por ele, disse que
ainda não havia pensado na questão.
Eu confesso que não vejo nenhuma virtude, nem
econômica, nem política, nem muito menos cultural. Acho o nacionalismo um atraso, em todos os sentidos...
Paulo Roberto de Almeida
Why Economic Nationalism Fails
- Ethnic Nationalism – At its worst, this is the nationalism of Nazis, the KKK, and other “blood and soil” movements around the world. It is the nationalism no one in polite society wants to be associated with, and rightly so. That it is the original form of nationalism, however, must be admitted. The word “nation,” after all, comes from the Latin natio, which comes from nasci, meaning “birth.” Indeed, the English words “race” and “nation” were historically—and sometimes still are—used interchangeably, and ethnic nationalism is the belief that “the State and the nation [meaning race] must be co-extensive,” to quote Lord Acton, who notably, contra John Stuart Mill, opposed that theory. 
- Cultural Nationalism – This is often related to—but in my view separable from—ethnic nationalism. To value one’s national—or even ethnic—cultural achievements and to wish to preserve them does not require conflating one’s racial group with the state or other racial groups with hostile foreign powers. To be proud to be an American, for example, does not require one to be proud of everything the United States has ever done, including slavery, Jim Crow, or Wounded Knee. One may simply love democracy, the Protestant work ethic, hotdogs, and/or baseball (as all real Americans should).
- Political (or Civic) Nationalism – At their core, the many varieties of political nationalism put the principle of national sovereignty at the heart of domestic and international politics. In practice, this may come from sophisticated theory or populist sentiment. Militarily, it may be hawkish or embrace a more passive kind of restraint, as both invading other countries and staying out of foreign wars can be justified on the principle of national interest. The common ground comes down to where the decision to do so is made: not by a transnational governmental body, like the EU or UN, but by a sovereign national state.
- Economic Nationalism – This nationalism seeks to prioritize domestic industries over/against foreign imports. This is the nationalism behind “America first” economic policies, such as tariffs on foreign goods and subsidies for domestic manufacturers. Those today who claim the United States needs an “industrial policy” like Saudi Arabia are economic nationalists. They have so far rejected “zombie Reaganism” as to embrace the Frankenstein’s monster of Mondale conservatism.
the meanest form of imperialism, in that [they are] a denial of economic ascendancy and a denial of hope to poorer nations for the sake of immediate short-term gain of competitors in the wealthier nations, which are strategically harmful in any event.