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sexta-feira, 18 de fevereiro de 2011
Democracias ma non troppo: os casos de Brasil e India
Rising powers and the future of democracy promotion: the case of Brazil and India
Oliver Stuenkel, Visiting Professor, Institute of International Relations, University of São Paulo (USP), Brazil
Jabin T. Jacob, Senior Research Fellow, Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies, New Delhi, India
Portuguese Journal of International Affairs, AUTUMN/WINTER 2010, n. 4, p. 23-30.
"Democracy promotion is, for obvious reasons, not an issue in Russia and China. The case is however, more surprising with respect to Brazil and India, two vibrant democracies whose leaders have often been personally involved in the fight for democratic rights. (...) There is in fact, little discernible difference between Brazilian and Indian ties to democratic countries such as South Africa and to non-democratic ones such as Russia, with which both Brasília and New Delhi have cordial relations. Brazil is on good terms with leaders such as Cuba’s Raúl Castro, Iran’s Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, and Venezuela’s Hugo Chávez, and it has been notoriously reluctant to endorse measures to prevent genocides in Rwanda, Sudan and
former Yugoslavia." (p. 25)
"Democracy promotion,... plays virtually no role in their efforts. In this respect, the activities of Brazil, India and China are more or less indistinguishable from each other." (p. 27)
"While India and Brazil believe liberal and human rights abiding democracies are the best regime type, they have almost no missionary zeal to promote democracy abroad, in contrast to the United States, whose national security strategy prominently features democracy promotion. As Venezuela’s Hugo Chávez turns his country into an autocracy, Brazil has at no point voiced any concerns about the problems in that country, including jailed opposition figures, lack of freedom of the press, large-scale arms purchases or ties to the FA RC guerrilla that seeks to undermine the Colombian state." (p. 27-28)
"In the short-run, it does seem likely that the rise of emerging powers will contribute to the decreasing importance of democracy promotion in the international political discourse. African dictators will show little inclination to accept loans laden with conditions if they can opt for Chinese, Indian or Brazilian loans without any strings attached, and Central Asian despots will seek to take advantage of instability in their neighborhood or the fear of possible chaos in their own country to play one power against the other." (p. 29)
Ou seja, a pergunta fica: o Brasil vai continuar apoiando ditaduras e ditadores, e continuar desprezando direitos humanos?
Tudo leva a crer que não, mas seria preciso ver na prática como a transição vai se dar...
Leiam a íntegra do paper neste link:
PJIA 4: Democracy Promotion: the case of Brazil and India
Oliver Stuenkel and Jabin T. Jacob, "Rising powers and the future of democracy promotion: the case of Brazil and India" (Portuguese Journal of International Affairs, No. 4, Autumn/Winter 2010): 23-30.