O que é este blog?

Este blog trata basicamente de ideias, se possível inteligentes, para pessoas inteligentes. Ele também se ocupa de ideias aplicadas à política, em especial à política econômica. Ele constitui uma tentativa de manter um pensamento crítico e independente sobre livros, sobre questões culturais em geral, focando numa discussão bem informada sobre temas de relações internacionais e de política externa do Brasil. Para meus livros e ensaios ver o website: www.pralmeida.org. Para a maior parte de meus textos, ver minha página na plataforma Academia.edu, link: https://itamaraty.academia.edu/PauloRobertodeAlmeida

domingo, 22 de outubro de 2017

Eleicoes para americano ver: presidential election in Brazil, 2002 - Paulo Roberto de Almeida

Como eu estava nos Estados Unidos em 2002, e era frequentemente chamado a me pronunciar sobre as eleições, geralmente para os meios acadêmicos, acabei preparando, com a ajuda de dados constantes nos boletins preparados pelo professor David Fleischer, da UnB, um pequeno dossiê em inglês, que tem o mérito de apresentar todos os 30 partidos então em funcionamento no Congresso, com seus respectivos presidentes (muitos ainda por aí, alguns na cadeia), e todos os candidatos nas eleições daquele ano.
Creio que pode ser útil para rememorar como andávamos cheios (literalmente) de candidatos e de propostas (de todos os tipos).
Paulo Roberto de Almeida
Brasília, 22/10/2017


The Upcoming Presidential Election in Brazil:

Parties, Platforms, and Candidates


Dossier prepared by

Paulo Roberto de Almeida
Minister Counselor, Brazilian Embassy
BRAZIL:
One of the largest countries in the world, 5th in population, 10th in GDP
Population: 174,5 million;
Voters: 115,3 million (66% of the population); 52% ages 16 to 35 years; 51% women
Federation: 26 states and 1 federal district (Brasília); Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins
Suffrage: voluntary between 16 and 18 years of age and over 70; compulsory over 18 and under 70 years of age
Elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 4 October 1998; election results: Fernando Henrique CARDOSO reelected president; percent of vote - 53%

October 2002: the 6th:1st run for presidency (50%+1 rule); Congress (2/3 of the Senate); state governors and local assemblies;
the 27th: 2nd run: two most voted for presidency or state governors

Legislative Branch:  bicameral National Congress or Congresso Nacional consists of the Federal Senate or Senado Federal (81 seats; three members from each state or federal district elected according to the principle of majority to serve eight-year terms; one-third elected after a four year period, two-thirds elected after the next four-year period) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara dos Deputados (513 seats; members are elected by proportional representation to serve four-year terms)
Elections: Federal Senate - last held 4 October 1998 for one-third of Senate (next to be held: October 6, 2002 for two-thirds of the Senate); Chamber of Deputies - last held 4 October 1998 (next to be held October 6, 2002);
1998 election results: Federal Senate - seats by party: PMDB 27, PFL 20, PSDB 16, PT 7, PPB 5, PSB 3, PDT 2, PPS 1; Chamber of Deputies: seats by party - PFL 106, PSDB 99, PMDB 82, PPB 60, PT 58, PTB 31, PDT 25, PSB 19, PL 12, PCdoB 7, other 14
Judicial Branch: Supreme Federal Tribunal (11 ministers are appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate); Higher Tribunal of Justice; Regional Federal Tribunals (judges are appointed for life)
Main Political Parties: Brazilian Democratic Movement Party or PMDB [Michel Temer, president]; Brazilian Labor Party or PTB [Roberto Jefferson]; Brazilian Social Democracy Party or PSDB [José Anibal]; Brazilian Socialist Party or PSB [Miguel ARRAES, president]; Brazilian Progressive Party or PPB [Paulo Salim MALUF]; Communist Party of Brazil or PCdoB [Sergio Roberto Gomes SOUZA, chairman]; Democratic Labor Party or PDT [Leonel BRIZOLA, president]; Liberal Front Party or PFL [Jorge BORNHAUSEN, president]; Liberal Party or PL [Francisco Teixeira de OLIVEIRA]; Popular Socialist Party or PPS [Roberto FREIRE, president]; Worker's Party or PT [Jose DIRCEU, president]
Pressure groups: left wing of the Catholic Church, Landless Worker's Movement, and labor unions allied to leftist Worker's Party are critical of government's social and economic policies

General Elections 2002
Registered Parties (by order of registration)

PMDB **       PARTIDO DO MOVIMENTO DEMOCRÁTICO BRASILEIRO
30.06.81          MICHEL TEMER; DEPUTADO: 15
PTB **           PARTIDO TRABALHISTA BRASILEIRO
03.11.81; JOSÉ CARLOS DE CASTRO MARTINEZ; DEPUTADO: 14
PDT **           PARTIDO DEMOCRÁTICO TRABALHISTA
10.11.81          LEONEL BRIZOLA  -: 12
PT **  PARTIDO DOS TRABALHADORES       
11.02.82          JOSÉ DIRCEU DE OLIVEIRA E SILVA; DEPUTADO: 13
PFL **            PARTIDO DA FRENTE LIBERAL
11.09.86          JORGE KONDER BORNHAUSEN; SENADOR: 25
PL *    PARTIDO LIBERAL
25.02.88          VALDEMAR COSTA NETO; DEPUTADO: 22
PC do B *       PARTIDO COMUNISTA DO BRASIL
23.06.88          JOSÉ RENATO RABELO; -: 65
PSB **           PARTIDO SOCIALISTA BRASILEIRO
01.07.88          MIGUEL ARRAES: -: 40
PSDB **        PARTIDO DA SOCIAL DEMOCRACIA BRASILEIRA
24.08.89          JOSÉ ANIBAL PERES PONTES; DEPUTADO: 45
PTC    PARTIDO TRABALHISTA CRISTÃO (ANTIGO PRN)
24.04.01          DANIEL SAMPAIO TOURINHO;  -: 36
PSD    PARTIDO SOCIAL DEMOCRÁTICO
16.03.90          NABI ABI CHEDID; -: 41
PSC * PARTIDO SOCIAL CRISTÃO
29.03.90          VICTOR JORGE ABDALA NÓSSEIS; -: 20
PMN   PARTIDO DA MOBILIZAÇÃO NACIONAL
25.10.90          OSCAR NORONHA FILHO; -:: 33
PRONA          PARTIDO DE REEDIFICAÇÃO DA ORDEM NACIONAL
30.10.90          ENEAS FERREIRA CARNEIRO; -: 56
PRP     PARTIDO REPUBLICANO PROGRESSISTA
29.10.91          DIRCEU RESENDE; -: 44
PPS **            PARTIDO POPULAR SOCIALISTA- (ANTIGO PCB)
19.03.92          ROBERTO J.P.FREIRE; SENADOR: 23
PV *    PARTIDO VERDE
30.09.93          JOSÉ LUIZ DE FRANCA PENNA; -: 43
PT do B          PARTIDO TRABALHISTA DO BRASIL
11.10.94          CARLOS ALBERTO DA SILVA; -: 70
PPB **            PARTIDO PROGRESSISTA BRASILEIRO (PPR+PP)
16.11.95          PAULO MALUF; -: 11
PSTU  PARTIDO SOCIALISTA DOS TRABALHADORES UNIFICADO-ANT. PRT
19.12.95          JOSÉ MARIA DE ALMEIDA; -: 16
PCB     PARTIDO COMUNISTA BRASILEIRO
09.05.96          ZULEIDE FARIA DE MELO; -: 21
PST * PARTIDO SOCIAL TRABALHISTA
28.08.96          MARCILIO DUARTE LIMA; -: 18
PRTB  PARTIDO RENOVADOR TRABALHISTA BRASILEIRO
18.02.97          JOSÉ LEVY FIDELIX DA CRUZ; -: 28
PHS * PARTIDO HUMANISTA DA SOLIDARIEDADE - (Antigo PSN)
20.03.97          PAULO ROBERTO MATOS; -: 31
PSDC PARTIDO SOCIAL DEMOCRATA CRISTÃO - ANT. PDC
05.08.97          JOSÉ MARIA EYMAEL; -: 27
PCO   PARTIDO DA CAUSA OPERÁRIA
30.09.97          RUI COSTA PIMENTA; -:29
PTN * PARTIDO TRABALHISTA NACIONAL
02.10.97          JOSÉ DE ABREU; DEPUTADO: 19
PAN    PARTIDO DOS APOSENTADOS DA NAÇÃO
19.02.98          DREYFUS BUENO RABELLO; -: 26
PSL *  PARTIDO SOCIAL LIBERAL
02.06.98          LUCIANO CALDAS BIVAR; DEPUTADO: 17
PGT    PARTIDO GERAL DOS TRABALHADORES
02.09.99          FRANCISCO C.P.DO NASCIMENTO; -: 30


Total: 30 registered parties (half active in Parliament)



Portrait of the Brazilian Voter, 2002



Class A


Class B

Class C

Class D

Class E

Total

How many?

9 m
(8%)
14 m
(12%)
29 m
(25%)
28 m
(24%)
36 m
(31)
116 m
(100%)
Income Tax
90%
60%
0%
0%
0%
7 m pay
University studies
20%
10%
3%
3%
0%

Middle school
70%
60%
20%
15%
?

Basic school
100%
100%
50%
60%
70%

Illiterate
-
-
-
15%
20%

Television
100%
100%
100%
96%
80%

Newspapers, magaz.
80%
65%
47%
27%
17%
15 m read
Cable TV
60%
40%
-
-
-

Dissatisfied w. life
25%
27%
35%
37%
36%

Earned income (reais per month)
2,000
and plus
1,000 to
2,000
400 to
1,000
200 to
400
Up to
200

Lula voters *
34%
27%
32%
36%
37%

Ciro Gomes *
33%
32%
21%
17%
18%

Serra voters *
20%
12%
14%
15%
15%

Garotinho *
2%
10%
12%
11%
9%


Only 20% of the voters pay income tax
80% of the electorate does not pay income tax; earn R$ 200 to 1,000

Source: * According to a pool in Veja, “O retrato do eleitor”, nr. 1762, 31 jul 02


Distribution of Voters, 2002
Regions
Municipalities
%
Number of Voters
%
South-East
1,668
29.48
50,696,091
43.98
North-East
1,793
31.69
31,015,810
26.91
South
1,189
21.01
17,833,502
15.47
Center-West
466
8.24
8,026,084
6.96
North
449
7.94
7,630,413
6.62

Abroad

93
1.64
69,878
0.06

Total

5,658
100
115,271,778
100


Fragmentation of Brazilian Parties, 1986-2001

Represent. in the House

1986
1990
1994
2001
100 ou +
1
-
-
-
75 à 99
2
1
1
3
50 à 74
2
1
1
2
25 à 49
3
6
5
2
0 à 24
3
11
10
9
Total number of parties:
11
19
17
16


Evolution of the number of Brazilian Voters, 1933-2000

(million)
Year

Number

Year
Number
Year

Number

1933
1.466
1982
58.616
1992
90.222
1945
7.459
1986
69.371
1994
94.000
1950
11.455
1988
75.813
1996
101.284
1960
15.543
1989
82.075
1998
106.101
1970
28.966
1990
83.817
2000
109.826


Presidential Elections 2002
Registered Candidates

1.  Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (Coalition “Lula President”), 13
            PT, PL, PcdoB, PCB, PMN
1. Economists’ Document - Instituto de Cidadania (June 2001)
2. Resolutions Recife convention (December 2001)
3. Letter to the Brazilian People (June 22, 2002)
4. Program (July 23, 2002)

2. Ciro Ferreira Gomes (Coalition “Labor Front”), 23
            PPS, PTB, PDT (informal support of the PFL)
1. Program (February 2002)

3. José Serra (Coalition “Big Alliance”), 45
            PSDB, PMDB
1. Interview (June 25, 2002)
2. Program (August ?, 2002)
                        site: www.joseserra.com.br

4. Anthony William Garotinho (Coalition “Brazil Hope Front”), 40
            PSB, PGT, PTC
                        site: www.garotinho40.com.br

5. José Maria de Almeida, 16
            PSTU
                        site: www.pstu.org.br

6. Rui Costa Pimenta, 29
            PCO
                        site: www.pco.org.br

Analytical works by Paulo Roberto de Almeida
1. Análise do documento dos economistas do Instituto de Cidadania (PT)
2. Comentários ao Programa do Candidato Ciro Gomes
3. As campanhas presidenciais no Brasil, de 1994 a 2002
4. A política externa e a campanha presidencial de 2002

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